Reactive oxygen molecules at high concentrations, which are known as oxidants are quite damaging for cells in all living beings. However, a new study has found that low levels of the oxidant called hydrogen peroxide can trigger an enzyme, which can reduce the rate of aging in yeast cells. Antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E are known for eliminating oxidants, which might react with essential molecules in the body and damage their natural function. Cells of the body develop a strong defense mechanism to ward off these oxidants. A high amount of oxidants can lead to serious damage in the cell membranes and DNA. These oxidants are produced in the body through normal metabolism. This study has been done by experts from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Earlier, health experts have thought that oxidants are harmful agents only, however, now they have started to understand that they can trigger positive effects as well.
Experts have said that a low amount of hydrogen peroxide can do wonders. It is a chemical compound, which is used for hair and tooth whitening. However, at the same time, it is quite dangerous in high concentration. It is a metabolically formed oxidant. Scientists have been analyzing an enzyme known as Tsa1. It is an element of a group of antioxidants, which is called peroxiredoxins. Past studies have shown that these enzymes participate in the defense mechanism of yeast cells against damaging oxidants. The lead author of the study has confirmed that peroxiredoxins do help in increasing the life span of a variety of organisms if they are combined with reduced calorie intake. It is a known fact that less calorie intake can extend the life span of many living beings from yeast to monkeys. Many studies have confirmed that prompting peroxiredoxins can delay the process of aging in a range of living beings when they get low calories via food.
In the new study, experts have found that the Tsa1 enzyme needs a certain amount of hydrogen peroxide to be activated to join in the process of reducing the aging in yeast cells. Experts have seen that Tsa1 does not impact the levels of hydrogen peroxide in aged cells rather it needs a small quantity of hydrogen peroxide to slow down the activity of a central signaling pathway when the cells receive low calorie. This process ultimately halts the cell division and other processes related to the formation of building blocks of the cells. During this process, the cell’s defense against stress is activated which as well helps them to age slowly. Experts have said that the study highlights the molecular causes behind ailments like cancer, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes, which turn more chronic with age. With the new findings, experts have come one step closer to identify how oxidants can as well reduce the aging process.